Publications & Articles

Salt Passage Research: The State of the Art

Murdock Pencil
Journal of Communications (pre-1986); Sep 1976; 26, 4; ProQuest Psychology Journals, pg. 31

Conclusive evidence on the
effects of the utterance
“Please pass the salt” is
found to be sadly lacking.

Team Tools for Wicked Problems

Michael Pacanowsky

“Wicked” problems defy conventional problem-solving techniques–and most employee teams are not trained to deal with wicked problems. Here’s how one of America’s most innovative companies helps employees meet the challenge.

Communication in the Empowering Organization

Michael Pacanowsky

In this ethnographic account, the concept of an empowering organization is developed through a description of the practices that distribute power and opportunity, provide open communication, integrative problem solving, and an environment of trust, and encourage high performance and self-responsibility. Returning to theory, the “rules of empowerment” are provided.